1G.                                   A set of Snooker balls with their weight tolerances at a maximum of 1 gram,

                                         made by Belgian company Aramith.

A

Ancillary                          Equipment supplied or brought by the players or the referee to assist with strokes where cueing is difficult or when 

                                         the cue-ball is out of normal reach.

Apex (Apex Red).           The red ball which when racked is closest to the Pink.

Arrows.                            See Chevrons.

Around the Houses.      To play, or be forced to play, a stroke that will take the cue-ball on an extended path around the table off a number                                           of cushions and between balls not on, to gain, or regain position.

Attacking Break.            To play the first stroke of a frame such that as many Red balls as possible are disturbed while still making sure that                                             the cue-ball is as safe as possible behind the Baulk-line.

B

Back Spin.                      See Screw.

Bad Bounce.                  When the speed of the cue-ball changes after contact with a cushion. Can be caused by extremes of temperature or                                           by a section of the rubber that is inconsistent in firmness.

Bag.                                 See Pocket.

Ball Marker.                   A tool used by referees to mark the position of a ball to be lifted for cleaning and to check Free Ball and Ball                                                        Spotting possibilities.

Ball not on.                    An Object Ball which if struck first or propelled into a Pocket will be called foul.

Ball-on.                           An Object Ball which if struck first will not be called foul and/or if Potted will score.

Baize.                              The traditionally green felt napped cloth used to cover the bed of the table and the Cushions.

Baulk.                              The intervening space between the Baulk line and the face of the Bottom Cushion.

Baulk Colour.                 Any one of the Yellow, Green or Brown balls which have designated places on the Baulk-line in Snooker.

Baulk-line.                      The line drawn across the table placed between the centre pockets and the Bottom Cushion.

Bed (of the table).         The Baize covered part of a table between the cushions.

Big Pocket.                     Where an object ball is situated near the jaws of a pocket so that it would easily direct a ball played towards that                                                 pocket into it and which would otherwise miss by a small margin.

Bottom Roller.               The score indicator on a scoreboard usually attributed to the player breaking second in a match or who is named                                               second in a draw.

Bottom Cushion.           The cushion at the Baulk end of the table.

Break.                              A number of Pots in succession in the same Frame in Snooker or a number of successive scoring strokes in the                                                   same Game of Billiards.

Break Cue.                     To unscrew and split a two-piece cue signifying a concession.

Bridge.                            To raise the resting hand so as to enable cueing over intervening Object Balls.

Bridge Hand.                 The hand in contact with the Baize or Cushion or Rail that forms the V with forefinger and thumb which guides the                                             direction of the cue.

Butt.                                The opposite end of a cue to the Tip, raised or held parallel to play different strokes.

C

Cannon.                          A stroke that will cause the Cue-ball to contact two Object Balls in succession.

Canopy.                           See Light Shade.

Centre Baulk Spot.        The Brown Spot, so called in Billiards.

Centre Spot.                   The Blue Spot, so called in Billiards.

Chalk holder.                 The various ways of carrying chalk blocks to avoid them being in waistcoat or trouser pockets, pouches or magnetic                                           belt clips e.g.

Check(ed) Side.             To strike the Cue-ball on its left-hand side when playing a stroke to the right, or on the right-hand side when playing                                           a stroke to the left to decrease its angle of trajectory after striking an Object Ball or a Cushion.

Chevrons.                       The series of darker grained V shapes in line astern along the shaft of Ash cues. These shapes are used by some                                                 players as an aiming guide and all good cue makers will ensure that they line up with the flat part of the Butt that                                               carries their name plate for this reason.

Cocked Hat.                   A stroke played against a side cushion to then strike one of the end cushions and the opposite side cushion and be                                             potted in a centre pocket, referencing the pattern the path of the stroke would make.

Colour.                           Any one of the six balls that are neither Red or White.

Cue-ball.                         The white ball.

Cueing.                           The act of using the cue to play a stroke, or its description.

Cueist.                            A player of table sports, specifically one who has some expertise.

Cushion.                        The areas of the raised surrounds of the table between the Pockets that are covered in Baize.

Cushion face.                The vertical part of the cushion which is highest and most prominent.

Cut.                                 To play a stroke to a fine edge of a ball if its intended direction is at an acute angle.

D

D.                                    The semi-circle drawn within Baulk.

Deep Screw.                  To strike the cue-ball at its lowest point with extended follow through to impart excessive back spin to the ball. Such                                          a stroke will cause the cue-ball to reverse its path at a rapid pace and travel a considerable distance.

Defensive Break.          To play the first stroke of a frame so that as few Red balls as possible are disturbed. A notable and televised incident                                          following this type of break and used later as a 'What Happened Next' question on the British T.V. show, A Question                                            of Sport, was when the Red contacted was propelled to the Top Cushion and the Red at the other end of the base of                                          the triangle was propelled to the side cushion, both then bouncing back with just enough pace to return to the pack                                          so that it looked as if no disturbance had been made. 

DeLux Empire Rail.       A set of Empire rails with two ball races of extra length for the top pockets.

Dog’s Hind Leg.             Expression used to describe a cue which is less than perfectly straight.

Doubles.                        To play in teams of two with each team player and team playing alternately.

Double Baulked.           When both Object Balls are on or behind the Baulk-line with the striker In-hand in Billiards.

Double Kiss.                  When the cue-ball twice strikes an object ball on or near a cushion, or trapped between another ball or balls,                                                        successively and immediately.

Drop Cannon.               A Cannon played with two objectives, one of which is to score and so remain as the striker, with the other being to                                              gather the three balls close together near the Top Cushion to make the next stroke easier both in choice and                                                        execution. Most often played from Baulk.

E

Empire Rail.                   A Pocket open at the bottom with a ball race attached.

Escape.                          To successfully negotiate a path to and then first strike a ball-on from a snookered position.

F

Fall (the).                       That part of the Baize covered slate that forms the sloping vertical drop into pocket and its edge. See also Lip.

Feather(ing)                  The act of bringing the tip of the cue repeatedly close to the cue-ball without contact in preparing to play a stroke.

Ferrule.                          The brass sleeve secured around the top of a cue to facilitate the attachment of a tip.

Follow Through.           To play a stroke without stopping the cue dead or reversing its motion after striking the cue-ball so that the tip ends                                          up past the cue-ball's original stationary position.

Frame.                           The period of play in Snooker from the Break until the table is cleared, or it has been claimed, or there has been a                                              concession, or it has been awarded by the referee.

Free Ball.                        A Ball not on designated as on by the striker after a foul by an opponent and the awarding of the choice by the                                                    referee.

Full Ball.                         When contact is made, or required to be, or is available, at the centre point of the object ball selected, or when                                                    the ball-on is entirely obscured by a ball or balls not on, or is the available central contact requirement after two                                                  calls of a miss which forces a referee to award the frame following a warning and a third miss.

G

Game.                            Describes Billiards play either as a set period of time or until a pre-determined score is reached, or an individual                                                  Snooker contest.

Good Cue-ball.             To leave the cue-ball in a safe position at the end of a turn, usually very close to a cushion.

Goose-neck.                  Implement to aid cueing with the Cue-ball out of reach and with Object Balls impeding.

H

Half Butt.                       An extra-long (Cross)rest.

Half Ball.                        Where an object ball should be struck to affect a pot or to send the cue-ball on a path that will create a snooker or                                              leave it safe, or to play a losing Hazard or a Cannon in Billiards.

Hazard.                          A scoring stroke in Billiards that is not a Cannon.

I

In Baulk.                        To be left to play a stroke with the cue-ball situated on or behind the Baulk-line between the Bottom Cushions and                                              that line, usually a safe position unless a ball or balls-on are also in, or close to Baulk. In Billiards, to have an object                                            ball so positioned.

In-hand.                         Referencing the Cue-ball or the player at the start of a Frame or Game, or when the Cue-ball has been Pocketed, or                                            Forced Off the Table, or when a re-spotted Black needs to be played after a tied Frame, or after a Losing Hazard, or                                            when Cue-ball and an Object Ball are touching in Billiards.

In-off.                             Causing the Cue-ball to enter a Pocket after striking an Object Ball, a scoring stroke in Billiards and a foul in Snooker.

In-play.                           Referencing the Cue-ball any time during a Frame or Game when it is not In-hand.

Iron                                 A tool used to lay the nap of the cloth as flat and as smooth as possible. Similar to a domestic iron for smoothing                                                laundry but without steam outlets, with its plate in a rectangular shape rather than with one that comes to a point                                              and heavier. The cause of faint light and dark striped patterns sometimes seen on the Baize when used incorrectly,                                            usually because the runs made with it are not overlapped or it is too hot or both.

J

Jaws.                               The ends of two adjacent cushions which form the pocket openings.         

Jigger.                             See Rest.

Jump.                              When a ball leaves the bed of the table by being struck forcibly, either by another ball or the cue, or by being the                                                striking ball, or as the result of a kick.

K

Kick.                               The result of a bad contact between two balls.

Kiss.                               When any two balls come into light contact with each other and then move apart.

Knuckle.                        The high part of a Cushion that curves into a Pocket opening, specifically the point that is at the 90˚ angle.

L

Light Shade.                 An inverted housing suspended over the table for lighting fixtures with outward sloping sides and usually with a                                                 fringed surround, to ensure that all the light is directed to the whole of the table with as little as possible falling                                                   outside its perimeter. 

Lip.                                 Where the bed of the table meets the fall of a pocket.

Long Jenny.                   A losing Hazard played from in-hand to a top pocket.

Losing Hazard.             An In-off in Billiards.

M

Marker.                         An assistant to the referee who updates, keeps and records the scores.

Match.                           Generally, describes the contest between two players but also describes the contest between two teams as in                                                     Pennant.

Massé.                           To impart very heavy spin to the Cue-ball to force its path into an extremely tight curve.

Maximum.                    The highest break possible in Snooker without a Free Ball, or if a Red mistakenly replaces a potted or pocketed                                                   Brown and is then unidentifiable, which totals 147 points.

N

Nap.                               The direction of the cloth fibres which will feel smooth when stroked one way and rough the other. The smooth                                                  direction must be from Baulk to Top.

Nursery Cannons.        A series of Cannons played very gently with all 3 balls in very close proximity.

O

Object ball.                   All 15 Reds and all 6 Colours in Snooker. Both the opponent’s ball and the Red in Billiards

P

Pad.                               A velvet or Baize covered block used to lay the nap of the cloth flat.

Plant.                             A stroke used to Pot a ball by first striking one Ball-on that strikes another which is then Potted, or to foul by the                                                 same method when one of the two balls, usually the one Pocketed, is not on.

Pocket.                          One of six openings on the sides and corners of a Billiard table, or to cause a Ball not on to enter one of them                                                     (Pocketing).

Postman’s Knock.        A series of Pots and Cannons with the Red from The Spot and the other object ball trapped centrally on the top                                                   cushion and being double kissed to keep it there in playing the Cannons.

Pot.                                To cause a ball-on to enter a Pocket. (Potting).

Potting Angle.              The angle created at the point where a straight line path from the centre of a pocket through the ball selected and                                             the path from the cue-ball to the same ball meet.

Pyramid Spot.              The Pink Spot, so called in Billiards.

Q

Quarter Ball.                See Half Ball.

R

Rack.                             To set the balls up for play in Snooker. (Racked, Racking).

Rail.                               The raised surrounds of the table between the Pockets and behind the Cushions usually made of French Polished                                               timber.

Rattle.                            When a ball strikes both knuckles of a pocket multiple times with or without dropping, usually without. Often the                                               result of a forceful stroke.

Red.                               Any of the 15 Red balls.

Rest (Cross Rest).        Implement to aid cueing with the Cue-ball unhampered but out of normal reach.

Rubber.                        The strips that form the cushion faces, underneath the Baize, which cause the balls to rebound back into the table or                                         the actions that can be produced by the pocket jaws.

Running a Coup.         To cause the Cue-ball to directly enter a Pocket or to enter a Pocket off one of its Knuckles, when playing from In                                                 hand and with no balls out of Baulk, in Billiards.

Running side.              To strike the Cue-ball on its left-hand side when playing a stroke to the left or on the right-hand side when playing a                                           stroke to the right to increase its angle of trajectory after striking an Object Ball or a Cushion.

S

Safety.                           A non-scoring stroke that will make it difficult or impossible for an opponent to score.

Screw (Bottom Spin).  To strike the Cue-ball lower than central to induce spin that will reverse its trajectory after striking another ball.          

Set.                                The complete collection of balls in exact diversity to play Snooker, totalling 22, or the 3 different balls required for                                                Billiards.

Short Jenny.                  Losing Hazard played from In-hand into a centre pocket in Billiards.

Shot to Nothing.          A stroke, usually difficult, that will either result in a score or with the cue-ball or the ball-on, or both, safe.

Snookers Required.    The stage reached in a frame when a player needs penalty points to win.

Spider (Bridge Rest).   Implement to aid Cueing with the Cue-ball out of reach and with one or two Object Balls impeding.

Split the Pack.              To play a scoring stroke that will also forcibly contact and scatter any remaining reds still close to, or in their original                                           positions from being racked, so as to allow individuals to be potted.

Splice.                            Where the two traditional cue timbers, Ebony for the Butt and either Ash or Maple for the shaft, are joined. This join                                         is usually in the style of interlocking deep Vs or can be described as an interlocking wave with deep troughs and high                                         peaks running around the full circumference.

Spot.                              The designated place for each of the Colours in Snooker at the start of the Frame or after being Potted except during                                          the final sequence, Pocketed or Forced Off the Table, or for the placement of Object Balls in Billiards. Also, a disused                                          term for the top roller on a traditional scoreboard, which were originally made with their score indicators having a                                              large ivory spot on them to distinguish those of the bottom roller which were left plain. The practice is now rarely                                                used but can still be seen occasionally as a decorative feature.

Steal The Pocket.          A reference to playing a stroke so that a ball enters a pocket at one side or the other rather than centrally. Usually                                              used as a positional aid.

Swerve.                          To impart heavy side spin to the Cue-ball to force its trajectory to curve.

T

Templates.                    The shaped blocks which ensure that the pocket openings comply in width, height and depth with the rules.

The Spot.                       The Black Spot, so called in Billiards.

Three Quarter Ball.      See Half Ball.

Tight Pocket.                 A pocket opening set to the minimum gap allowable by the templates and with the rubbers not undercut, or one                                                such that will not allow the insertion of an official template.

Tip.                                 A circular piece of roughened leather applied to the ferrule of a cue to aid grip when striking.

To Break.                       To play the opening stroke in any Frame or Game.

Top Cushion.                 The Cushion nearest the Black Spot (The Spot).

Top of the Table.           A series of Pots and Cannons with both object balls on and around The Spot and the top pockets.

Top Roller.                     The score indicator on a scoreboard usually attributed to the player breaking in the first Frame or the player named                                          first in a draw.

Top spin.                        To strike the Cue-ball above central to induce spin that will propel if forwards after striking an Object Ball.

U

Undercut.                      A way of shaping the cushion rubbers in the jaws to make potting slightly easier without deviating from the rules                                                regarding the table.

W

Whitewash.                   To prove victorious without allowing an opponent to score if in a single frame or to win a match without losing a                                                  frame.

Winning Hazard.          A Pot in Billiards.

Wiped its feet.              An expression used when a potted ball strikes the knuckles of a pocket one or more times before dropping, or there                                          is a slight hesitation at the lip before it falls.

Wobble.                         See Rattle.

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