SNOOKER RULES 

SECTION 1 EQUIPMENT

Measurements displayed in brackets state the metric equivalent to the nearest millimetre

1. The Standard Table

(a) The Playing Area

The playing area is within the cushion faces and shall measure 11 ft. 81⁄2 in x 5 ft. 10 in (3569 mm x 1778 mm) with a tolerance on both dimensions of +/- 1⁄2 in (13 mm).

(b) Height

The height of the table from the floor to the top of the cushion rail shall be 2 ft. 10 in (864 mm) with a tolerance of +/- 1⁄2 in (13 mm).

(c) Bottom Cushion and Top Cushion

The two shorter sides of the table are defined as the Bottom (also known as Baulk) and Top Cushions of the table. Where a cloth with a nap is fitted to the table, the smooth grain of the nap runs from the Bottom Cushion to the Top Cushion.

(d) Baulk-line and Baulk

A straight line drawn 29 in (737 mm) from the face of the Bottom Cushion, and parallel to it, running from side cushion to side cushion is called the Baulk-line. That line and the intervening space is termed Baulk.

(e) The “D”

The “D” is a semi-circle marked in Baulk with the centre of its straight section in the middle of the Baulk-line and with a radius of 111⁄2 in (292 mm).

(f) Spots

Marked at each corner of the “D”, viewed from the Baulk end, the one on the right is known as the Yellow Spot and the one on the left as the Green Spot.

Four spots are marked on the centre longitudinal line of the table:

(i)  one on the middle of the Baulk-line, known as the Brown Spot; 


(ii)  one located midway between the points perpendicularly below the faces of the Top and Bottom Cushions, known as the Blue Spot; 


(iii)  one located midway between the Blue Spot and a point perpendicularly below the face of the Top Cushion, known as the Pink Spot; and 


(iv)  one 123⁄4 in (324 mm) from a point perpendicularly below the face of the Top Cushion, known as the Black Spot. 


(g) Pocket Openings

There shall be a pocket at each of the four corners of the table and one each at the middle of the longer sides.

2. Balls

(a)  A set of balls comprises of 15 Red balls, and one each of the following coloured balls: Yellow, Green, Brown, Blue, Pink, Black and a White. 


(b)  The balls shall be of an approved composition and shall each have a diameter of 52.5 mm with a tolerance of +/- 0.05 mm; 


(c)  they shall be of equal weight where possible but the tolerance between the heaviest ball and the lightest ball in a set should be no more than 3 g; and 


(d)  a ball or set of balls may be changed by agreement between the players or on a decision by the referee. 


3. Cue

A cue shall be not less than 3 ft. (914 mm) in length and shall show no change from the traditional tapered shape and form, with a tip, used to strike the cue-ball, secured to the thinner end.

4. Ancillary

Various cue rests, long cues, extensions and adaptors may be used by players. These may form part of the equipment normally found at the table but also include equipment introduced by either a player or the referee. All extensions, adaptors and other devices to aid cueing and/or sighting must have received prior approval from the relevant governing body.

SECTION 3 THE GAME

1. Description

Snooker may be played by two or more players, either independently or as sides. The game can be summarised as follows:

(a)     Each player uses the same White cue-ball and there are twenty-one object balls – fifteen Reds each valued 1, and six colours: Yellow valued 2, Green 3, Brown 4, Blue 5, Pink 6 and Black 7. 


(b)     Scoring strokes in a player’s turn are made by potting Reds and colours alternately until all the Reds are off the table and then the colours in the ascending order of their value. 


(c)     Points awarded for scoring strokes are added to the score of the striker. 


(d)     Penalty points from infringements are added to the opponent’s score. 


(e)     A tactic employed at any time during a frame is to leave the cue-ball behind a ball not on such that it is snookered for the next player. If a player or side is more points behind than are available from the balls left on the table, then the laying of snookers in the hope of gaining points from fouls becomes most important. 


(f)      The winner of a frame is the player or side:

   
   (i) with the highest score;


     (ii) to whom the frame is conceded; or


     (iii) to whom it is awarded under Section 3 Rule14(d)(ii) or Section 4 Rule 1(b), 1(d), 3(b) or 3(c). 


(g)     The winner of a game is the player or side: 


     (i) winning most, or the required, number of frames;


     (ii) making the greatest total where aggregate points are relevant; or

         (iii) to whom the game is awarded under Section 4 Rule 1(c)or1(d). 


(h)  The winner of a match is the player or side winning most games or, where aggregate points are relevant, with the         greatest total. 


 

2. Position of Balls

(a) At the start of each frame the cue-ball is in-hand and the object balls are positioned on the table as follows:

           (i)  the Reds in the form of a tightly-packed equilateral triangle, with the Red at the apex situated on the centre                    longitudinal line of the table, above the Pink Spot such that it will be as close to the Pink Spot as possible                        without occupying it, and the base of the triangle parallel with the Top Cushion; 


          (ii)  the six colours on the spots designated in Section 1 Rule 1(f). 


(b)  If an error in setting up the table is made, Section 3 Rule 7(c) shall apply, the frame starting as in Section 3 Rule              3(c). 


(c)  After a frame has started, a ball in play may only be cleaned by the referee upon reasonable request by the              striker and:

            (i)   the position of the ball shall be marked by a suitable device prior to the ball being lifted for cleaning; 


            (ii) the device used to mark the position of a ball being cleaned shall be regarded as, and acquire the value of                      the ball until such time as the ball has been cleaned and replaced. It is a penalty if any player other than                          the striker or the striker’s partner contacts the device. The referee shall call PENALTY and return the device                    or ball being cleaned to its original position, if necessary, even if it was picked up. 


A consultation period starts when the decision is made to replace the device or ball. 


3. Mode of Play

The players shall determine the order of play by lot or in any mutually agreed manner, the winner having the choice of which player plays first.

   (a) The order of play thus determined must remain unaltered throughout the frame, except a player may be asked by the next player to play again after any foul. 


   (b) The player or side to play first must alternate for each frame during a game. 


   (c) The first player plays from in-hand, the frame commencing when the cue-ball has been placed on the table and contacted by the tip of the cue either:

            (i) as a stroke is made; or 


            (ii) while addressing the cue-ball. 


   (d) If a frame is started by the wrong player or side:

            (i) it shall be restarted correctly, without penalty, if only one stroke has been played and no infringement has                      been committed since; or 


          (ii) It shall continue in the normal way if another stroke is made, or if an infringement is committed during the                    first stroke or after the completion of the first stroke, with the correct order of starting being resumed in the                 following frame such that one player or side will have started in three consecutive frames; or 


        (iii) it shall, in the event of a stalemate being declared (see Section 3 Rule 17), be re-started by the correct player                   or side. 


(e) For a stroke to be legal, none of the infringements described in Section 3 Rule 11 (Penalty Values) must occur. 


(f)   It is the striker’s responsibility to ensure that all objects or ancillary equipment from this turn or previous turns are removed from the table. 


(g)  For the first stroke of each turn, until all Reds are off the table, Red or a free ball nominated as a Red is the ball on, and the value of each Red and any free ball nominated as a Red, potted in the same stroke, is scored. 


(h)      (i) If a Red, or a free ball nominated as a Red, is potted, the same player plays the next stroke and the next ball                   on is a colour of the striker’s choice which, if potted, is scored and the colour is then spotted;

         (ii) The break is continued by potting Reds and colours alternately until all the Reds are off the table and, where                   applicable, a colour has been played at following the potting of the last Red; 


        (iii) The colours then become on in the ascending order of their value as per Section 3 Rule 1(a) and when next                     potted remain off the table, except as provided for in Section 3 Rule 4, and the striker plays the next stroke at                the next colour on; 


        (iv) In the event that the striker, in a break, plays before the referee has completed spotting a colour while all                        other balls are at rest, the value of the colour shall not be scored and Section 3 Rule 11(a)(i) or 11(b)(ii) shall                    apply as appropriate. 


(i) Reds are not usually replaced on the table once potted, pocketed or forced off the table regardless of the fact that a player may thus benefit from a foul. However, exceptions are provided for in Section 3 Rules 2(c)(ii), 3(k) 9, 10(i), 14(b), 14(e), 15, 16(c), 19(b) and Section 5 Rule 1(a)(i). 


(j)  If the striker fails to pot a ball, they must leave the table without undue delay. In the event that they should commit any foul before, or while leaving the table, they will be penalised as provided for in Section 3 Rule 11. The next stroke is then played from where the cue-ball comes to rest, or from in-hand if the cue-ball is not in play, except when the cue-ball is replaced in accordance with Section 3 Rules 10(i) and 14(e). 


 (k) It is a penalty if the non-striker comes to the table, out of turn, and commits any infringement. The referee shall call PENALTY and any ball(s) moved shall be replaced to their position prior to the infringement, and the striker’s turn will continue unaffected. 
A consultation period starts when the decision is made to replace the ball(s). 


(l) Following the final stroke of the opponent’s turn, or following a foul, if an incoming player strikes the cue-ball or commits an infringement before the balls have come to rest, or before the referee has completed the spotting of a colour, they shall be penalised as if they were the striker and their turn will end.

 (m) If any ball enters a pocket and rebounds onto the playing area, it does not count as having been potted or pocketed. The striker has no redress if this occurs.

4. End of Frame, Game or Match

 (a) When Black is the only object ball remaining on the table, the first pot or infringement ends the frame                       excepting only if the following conditions both apply:

                     (i)  the scores are then equal; and 


                     (ii)  aggregate scores are not relevant. 


(b) When both conditions in (a) above apply:

                     (i)  the Black is spotted; 


                     (ii)  the players draw lots for choice of playing next; 


                     (iii)  the next player plays from in-hand; and 


                     (iv)  the first pot or infringement ends the frame. 


 (c) When aggregate scores determine the winner of a game or match, and the aggregate scores are equal at the          end of the last frame, the players in that frame shall follow the procedure for a re-spotted Black set out in (b)              above. 


5. Playing from In-hand 


To play from in-hand, the cue-ball must be struck from a position on or within the lines of the “D”, but it may be played in any direction.

(a) The referee will state, if asked, whether the cue-ball is properly placed (that is, not outside the lines of the                        “D”). 


(b)  If the tip of the cue should touch the cue-ball while positioning it, and the referee is satisfied that the striker was not attempting to play a stroke, then the cue-ball is not in play. 


 

6. Hitting Two Balls Simultaneously 


Two balls, other than two Reds or a free ball and a ball on, must not be hit simultaneously by the first impact of the cue-ball.

7. Spotting Colours

Any colour potted, pocketed or forced off the table shall be spotted before the next stroke is made, until finally potted under Section 3 Rule 3(h)(iii).

(a) A player shall not be held responsible for any mistake by the referee in failing to spot any ball correctly. 


(b) If a colour is spotted in error after being potted in ascending order as per Section 3 Rule 3(h)(iii), it shall be removed from the table without penalty when the error is discovered, and play shall continue from the resulting position. If the error is discovered after the colour has been potted, the points scored shall count after the next stroke is played, or after an infringement is committed prior to playing the next stroke. 


(c)  If a stroke is made with a ball or balls not correctly spotted, they shall be considered correctly spotted for subsequent strokes. Any colour incorrectly missing from the table shall be spotted:

            (i)    without penalty when discovered if missing due to previous oversight, provided the frame has not already                     ended under the terms of Section 2 Rule 1 and play shall continue from the resulting position. or


            (ii)  subject to penalty if the striker played before the referee was able to complete the spotting. 


(d) If a Red is spotted in error, instead of a colour, once discovered the colour shall be spotted, and:

            (i)  if the Red can be identified it will be removed from the table; or 


           (ii)  if the Red can be identified but has been potted, pocketed or forced off the table, or the colour was already                   spotted as described in (c) above, or if the red cannot be identified, the frame continues thus effectively                           creating a sixteen Red frame. In cases where a colour is missing from the table it shall be spotted and in all                     cases play shall continue from the resulting position without penalty
    

(e)  If a colour has to be spotted and its own spot is occupied, it shall be placed on the highest value spot available. 


(f)   If there is more than one colour to be spotted and their own spots are  occupied, the highest value ball shall take precedence in order of  spotting. 


(g)   If all spots are occupied, the colour shall be placed as near its own spot as possible, between that spot and the nearest part of the Top Cushion.


(h)  In the case of Pink and Black, if all spots are occupied and there is no available space between the relevant spot and the nearest part of the Top Cushion, the colour shall be placed as near to its own spot as possible on the centre longitudinal line of the table. 


(i)  In all cases, the colour when spotted must not be touching another ball.


(j)  A colour, to be properly spotted, must be placed on the spot designated in these Rules.

8. Touching Ball

(a)  If at the completion of a stroke the cue-ball is touching a ball or balls  on, or that could be on, the referee shall call TOUCHING BALL and, in the event of any doubt, indicate which ball or balls on the cue-ball is touching. If the cue-ball is touching one or more colours after a Red (or a free ball nominated as a Red) has been potted, the referee shall also ask the striker to DECLARE which colour they are on. 


(b)   When a TOUCHING BALL has been called, the striker must play the cue-ball away from that ball without moving it or it is a push stroke. 


(c)  Providing the striker, in playing a stroke, does not cause any touching  object ball to move, there shall be no penalty if:

                     (i)  the ball is on; 


                     (ii) the ball could be on and the striker declares they are on it; or 


                     (iii) the ball could be on and the striker declares, and first hits, another ball that could be on. 


(d)   If the cue-ball comes to rest touching or nearly touching a ball that is not on, the referee, if asked whether it is touching, will clarify the 
situation. 


(e)  When the cue-ball is touching both a ball on and a ball not on, the referee shall only indicate the ball on as touching. If the striker should  ask the referee whether the cue-ball is also touching the ball not on, they are entitled to be told. 


(f)   It is not a foul if the referee is satisfied that any movement of a touching ball at the moment of striking was not caused by the striker. 


(g) If a stationary object ball, not touching the cue-ball when examined by the referee, is later seen to be in contact with the cue-ball before a stroke has been made, the balls shall be repositioned by the referee to their satisfaction. This also applies to a touching ball which later, when examined by the referee is not touching. 


9. Ball on Edge of Pocket 


When a ball falls into a pocket without being hit by another ball, and

(a) being no part of any stroke in progress, it shall be replaced and any 
points previously scored shall count. 


(b) If it would have been hit by any ball involved in a stroke: 


         (i)      with no infringement of these Rules (including cases where an infringement would have occurred but for                         the ball falling into a pocket), all balls will be replaced and the same stroke played again, or a different                             stroke may be played by the same striker at their discretion;

         (ii)     if a foul is committed, the striker incurs the penalty prescribed in Section 3 Rule 11, all balls will be replaced                    and the next player has the usual options after a foul.

(c)  If a ball balances momentarily on the edge of a pocket and then falls in, it shall be considered potted or pocketed and shall not be replaced.
A   consultation period starts when the decision is made to replace the ball(s).

10. Fouls

If a foul is committed, the referee shall immediately call FOUL.

(a)  If the striker has not made a stroke, their turn ends and the referee shall announce the penalty. 


(b)  If a stroke has been made, the referee will wait until completion of the stroke before announcing the penalty. 


(c)   If a foul is neither awarded by the referee, nor successfully claimed by the non-striker before the next stroke is made, it is condoned. 


(d)   Any colour not correctly spotted shall remain where positioned except that if off the table it shall be correctly spotted; 


(e)  All points scored in a break before a foul is awarded shall count but the striker shall not score any points for any ball pocketed in a foul stroke. 


(f)   The next stroke is played from where the cue-ball comes to rest or, if the cue-ball is not in play, from in-hand. 


(g)  If more than one foul is committed in the same stroke, the highest value penalty shall be incurred. 


(h)  The player who committed the foul:

            (i) incurs the penalty points prescribed in Section 3 Rule 11; and 


            (ii) has to play the next stroke if requested by the next player. 


(i)  If a striker fouls any ball including the cue-ball prior to striking it, the appropriate penalty will be imposed. The non-offender may then elect to play themselves from the position left, or request the offender to play again from the position left or the original position, in which latter case all balls shall be replaced and the ball on shall be the same as it was prior to the infringement, namely:

            (i) Any Red, where Red was the ball on; 


            (ii) The colour on, where all the Reds were off the table; 


           (iii) A colour of the striker’s choice, where the ball on was a colour after a Red, or a free ball nominated as a Red                   had been potted. 


A consultation period starts when the request is made to replace the ball(s).

11. Penalty Values

The following acts are fouls and incur four penalty points unless higher penalty points are indicated in paragraphs (a) to (d) below.

(a) value of the ball on by:

            (i)  striking before the referee has completed the spotting of a colour taken as a free ball; 


            (ii)  striking the cue-ball more than once during a stroke; 


            (iii)  striking when both feet are off the floor; 


            (iv)  playing out of turn in Four-handed Snooker; 


            (v)  playing improperly from in-hand, including at the opening stroke; 


            (vi)  causing the cue-ball to fail to contact any object ball; 


            (vii)  causing the cue-ball to be pocketed; 


           (viii)  causing the cue-ball to be snookered by the nominated free ball, except as provided for in Section 3 Rule                        12(b)(ii); 


            (ix)  playing a jump shot; 


            (x)  playing with a non-standard cue; or 


            (xi)  conferring or communicating with a partner contrary to Section 3 Rule 18(e); 


(b) value of the ball on or ball concerned, whichever is higher, by:

           (i) striking when any ball is not at rest;


           (ii) striking before the referee has completed the spotting of a colour  that is not a free ball;


           (iii) causing a ball not on to be pocketed;


           (iv) causing the cue-ball to first hit a ball not on or, when a free ball is nominated, causing the cue-ball to first                       hit any ball other than the nominated free ball unless it was hit simultaneously with a ball on; 


            (v) making a push stroke;


            (vi) Contacting, with any part of the player’s person, attire or equipment,  a ball in play, or any device used to                        mark a ball in play.


            (vii) causing any ball to contact any object or equipment left at or on the table during the turn or from previous                     turns.

           (viii) striking before any balls removed for cleaning have been returned to the table;


           (ix) causing a ball to be forced off the table;


            (x) causing the cue-ball to be snookered by the nominated ball in Six Reds Snooker.


(c)  value of the ball on or higher value of the two balls concerned by causing the cue-ball to first hit simultaneously two balls, other than two Reds (when Red is the ball on) or a nominated free ball and a ball on;

(d) seven points if the striker:

         (i) uses a ball off the table for any purpose; 


         (ii) uses any object to measure gaps or distance; 


         (iii) plays at Reds, or a free ball followed by a Red, in successive strokes; 


         (iv) uses any ball other than White as the cue-ball after the frame has started; 


         (v) fails to declare which ball they are on when requested to do so by the referee; or 


         (vi) after potting a Red (or free ball nominated as a Red), commits a foul before a colour has been nominated. 


The following acts are penalties and incur four penalty points unless higher penalty points are indicated in paragraphs (e) to (g) below.

(e)   value of the ball on or ball concerned, whichever is higher by committing an infringement, out of turn, as described in Section 3 Rule 3(k). 


(f)      seven points if any player contacts, with any part of their person, attire or equipment, any ball or a device used to mark a ball, during a consultation period. 


(g)  seven points if the non-striker:

            (i) uses a ball off the table for any purpose; 


            (ii) uses any object to measure gaps or distance. 


12. Snookered After a Foul

After a foul, if the cue-ball is snookered (see Section 2 Rule 17), the referee shall call FREE BALL.

(a)     If the player next in turn elects to play the next stroke:

            (i) they may nominate any ball as the ball on, but a free ball cannot be the ball on; 


            (ii) any nominated free ball shall be regarded as, and acquire the value of, the ball on except that, if potted, it                       shall then be spotted. 


(b) It is a foul if the cue-ball should:

            (i) fail to hit the nominated free ball first unless it was hit simultaneously with a ball on; or 


            (ii)  after a non-scoring stroke, be snookered on all Reds or the ball on  by the nominated free ball, except                              when the Pink and Black are the only object balls remaining on the table. 


(c)  If the nominated free ball is potted, it is spotted and the value of the ball on is scored. 


(d   If a ball on is potted, after the cue-ball hit the nominated free ball first, or simultaneously with a ball on, the ball on is scored and remains off the table. 


(e)  If both the nominated free ball and a ball on are potted, only the ball on is scored unless it was a Red, when each ball potted is scored. The nominated free ball is then spotted and the ball on remains off the table. 


(f)   If the offender is asked to play again, or a request is made by the non-offender for the replacement of the ball(s) (as in Section 3 Rules 10(i), 14(b) and 14(e)), the free ball option becomes void. 


13. Play Again

Once a player has requested an opponent to play again after a foul or requested the replacement of ball(s) after a foul or a Foul and a Miss, such request cannot be withdrawn. The offender, having been asked to play again, is entitled to:

(a)  change their mind as to:

            (i) which stroke they will play; and 


            (ii) which ball on they will attempt to hit; 


(b)  score points for any ball or balls they may pot. 


14. Foul and a Miss

(a)  The striker shall, to the best of their ability, endeavour to hit the ball on or a ball that could be on after a Red, or a free ball nominated as a Red, has been potted. If the referee considers the Rule infringed, they shall call FOUL AND A MISS unless:

            (i)   any player needed penalty points before, or as a result of, the  stroke being played and the referee is                              satisfied that the miss was  not intentional; 


            (ii)  a situation exists where it is impossible to hit the ball on. In the  latter case it must be assumed the striker                      is attempting to hit the ball on provided that they play, directly or indirectly, at the ball on with sufficient                          strength, in the referee’s opinion, to have reached the ball on but for the obstructing ball or balls. 


(b)  After a FOUL AND A MISS has been called, the non-offender may request the offender to play again from the position left or the original position, in which latter case all balls shall be replaced and the ball on shall be the same as it was prior to the last stroke made, namely:

            (i) Any Red, where Red was the ball on; 


            (ii) the colour on, where all Reds were off the table; or 


           (iii) a colour of the striker’s choice, where the ball on was a colour after a Red, or a free ball nominated as a Red                   had been potted.

(c)  If the striker, in making a stroke, fails to first hit a ball on when there is a clear path in a straight line from the cue-ball to any part of any ball that is or could be on, the referee shall call FOUL AND A MISS unless as described under Section 3 Rule 14(a)(i).

(d)   After a FOUL AND A MISS has been called under paragraph (c) above  when there was a clear path in a straight line from the cue- ball to a ball  that was on or could have been on, such that central, full ball, contact  was available (in the case of Reds, this to be taken as a full diameter of  any Red that is not obstructed by a colour), or when the cue-ball is touching a ball that could be on after a Red was potted, then:

            (i)   a second failure to first hit a ball on in making a stroke from the original position shall be called as a FOUL                      AND A MISS regardless of the difference in scores; 


            (ii)  in the event of a second failure as in (i) above, if asked to play again from the original position, the offender                    shall be Warned by the referee that a further failure will result in the frame being                                                                  awarded to their opponent. However, a frame cannot be awarded if a Warning has not been issued. If the                      referee has not issued the Warning, provided the sequence of FOUL AND A MISS calls has  continued, the                        striker will be Warned at the first available opportunity. 


            (iii)  if asked to play from the position left, the Foul and a Miss sequence as in (d)(i) and (d)(ii) ends. 


(e)  After all balls have been replaced under this Rule, and the striker fouls any ball, including the cue-ball, a MISS will not be called if a stroke has not been played. In this case the appropriate penalty will be imposed. The non-offender may then elect to play themselves from the position left, or request the offender to play again from the position left or the original position, in which latter case all balls shall be replaced and the ball on shall be the same as it was prior to the last stroke made, namely:

            (i) any Red, where Red was the ball on; 


            (ii) the colour on, where all Reds were off the table; or 


           (iii) a colour of the striker’s choice, where the ball on was a colour after a Red, or a free ball nominated as a Red                   had been potted.
If the  above situation arises during a sequence of FOUL AND A MISS calls as described                         under paragraph (d) above, any Warning concerning the possible awarding of the frame to their opponent                  shall only remain in effect when all balls have been replaced to their original position prior to the                                     infringement. 


(f)  If, after a FOUL AND A MISS has been called, the request is made to play from the original position, a consultation period starts.

15. Ball Moved by Other than Striker

If a ball, stationary or moving, is disturbed other than by the striker, it shall be replaced by the referee to the position they deem the ball was, or would have come to rest, without penalising the striker.
A consultation period starts when the decision is made to replace the ball(s).

(a)  This Rule shall include cases where another occurrence or person, other than the striker’s partner causes the striker to move a ball, but will not apply in cases where a ball moves due to any defect in the table surface,                  except in the case where a spotted ball moves before the next stroke has been made. 


(b)  No player shall be penalised for any disturbance of balls by the referee. 


 

16. Ball Moved Other than in a Stroke

(a)  If an object ball in play is disturbed by the striker while the cue-ball is in-hand, the referee will call FOUL and the cue-ball will remain in-hand for the next stroke. 


(b)  A ball, intentionally moved or picked up by the striker will be deemed forced off the table. An exception is provided for in Section 5 Rule 1(a)(i). 


(c)  If the referee considers that the action of forcing a ball off the table was an act of Unsporting Conduct, they will replace that ball to the original position or, in the case of a moving ball, to the position the referee deemed it would have finished. 


A consultation period starts when the decision is made to replace the ball(s).

17. Stalemate

If the referee thinks a position of stalemate exists, or is being approached, or is indicated by both players, the referee shall offer the players the immediate option of re-starting the frame. If any player objects, the referee shall allow play to continue with the proviso that the situation must change within a stated period, usually after three more strokes to each side but at the referee’s discretion. If the situation remains basically unchanged after the stated period has expired, the referee shall nullify all scores and re-set all balls as for the start of a frame. The same player shall again make the opening stroke, subject to Section 3 Rule 3(d)(iii), with the same established order of play being maintained. This process is commonly referred to as a re-rack.
If a stalemate occurs during a re-spotted Black as described in Section 3 Rule 4(b), only the Black will be spotted with the same player to make the opening stroke.

18. Four-handed Snooker

(a)     In a four-handed game (four players constituting two sides of two players) each side shall open alternate frames and the order of play shall be determined at the start of each frame and, when so determined, must be maintained throughout that frame. 


(b)     Players may change the order of play at the start of each new frame. 


(c)     If a foul is committed and a request to play again is made, the player  who committed the foul plays the next stroke and the order of play is unchanged. If the FOUL was called for playing out of turn, the offender’s partner will lose a turn, whether or not the offender is asked to play again. 


(d)     When a frame ends in a tie Section 3 Rule 4 applies. If a re-spotted 
 Black is necessary, the pair who play the first stroke have the choice of which player will make that stroke. The order of play must then continue as in the frame. 


(e)     Partners may confer or communicate during a frame but not whilst one is the striker and has approached the table until their turn has ended. 


(f)      If the striker’s partner commits an infringement, the striker will be considered as the offender. 


19. Six Reds Snooker

In a Six Reds Snooker game the official Rules of the Game of Snooker apply with the following variations:

(a)     There will be no more than five consecutive FOUL AND A MISS calls if  the offender is requested to play again from the original position. 


(b)     After the fourth consecutive FOUL AND A MISS call, the referee will  Warn the offending player that should a FOUL AND A MISS be called again the non-offender may:

            (i) play from where the balls have come to rest; or 


           (ii) ask their opponent to play from where the balls have to come to rest; or 


          (iii) play the cue-ball from any position on the playing area, unless any player needed penalty points before, or                    as a result of, the last stroke being played. If this option is chosen, Section 3 Rule 12 shall not apply. 


(c)     If, after a FOUL AND A MISS call, the offender is requested to play from the position left, the previous Foul and a Miss sequence ends.

(d)     After potting a Red or a free ball nominated as a Red, the striker must not leave their opponent snookered behind the nominated colour as described in Section 2 Rule 17.

20. Use of Ancillary Equipment

It is the responsibility of the striker to both place and remove any equipment they may use at the table.

(a)     The striker is responsible for all items including, but not limited to, rests  and extensions that they bring to the table, whether owned by them or borrowed (except from the referee), and they will be penalised for any fouls made when using this equipment. 


(b)     Equipment normally found at the table which has been provided by  another party including the referee is not the responsibility of the striker.  It is not a foul if this equipment should prove to be faulty and thereby cause the striker to contact a ball or balls. The referee will, if necessary, reposition any balls in accordance with Section 3 Rule 15 and the striker, if in a break, will be allowed to continue without penalty. 


21. Interpretation

(a)     Circumstances may necessitate adjustment in how Rules are applied for persons with disabilities. In particular, and for example:

            (i)  Section 3 Rule 11(a)(iii) cannot be applied to players in wheelchairs; and 


            (ii)  a player, upon request to the referee, shall be told the colour of a  ball or its position if they are unable to                      differentiate between 
 colours as, for example, Red and Green. 


(b)      When there is no referee, the opposing player or side will be regarded  as such for the purpose of these Rules. 


SECTION 4 THE PLAYERS

1. Unsporting Conduct

(a) In the event of

         (i) a player using offensive language, or making offensive gestures, or 


         (ii) any conduct by a player which in the opinion of the referee is wilfully or persistently Unsporting; or 


         (iii) any other conduct by a player which otherwise amounts to 
Unsporting Conduct; or 


         (iv) any player refusing to continue the current frame; 


the referee shall Warn the player that in the event of any further Unsporting Conduct the frame will be awarded to their opponent.

(b)     If the referee has Warned the player under (a) above, in the event of any further Unsporting Conduct, the referee shall award the frame to  their opponent, or, if this happens between frames, the referee shall award the next frame to their opponent, and the referee shall Warn the player that in the event of any further Unsporting Conduct the game will be awarded to their opponent. 


(c)     If a referee has awarded a frame to a player’s opponent, under (b) above or (d) below, in the event of any further Unsporting Conduct by the player concerned, the referee shall award the game to the player’s opponent. 


(d)     in the event that the conduct which in the opinion of the referee is sufficiently serious, they shall award the frame or the game to the player’s opponent, even if previous Warnings for Unsporting Conduct were not issued. 


(e)     Any decision by the referee to award a frame and/or game to a player’s opponent shall be final and shall not be subject to any appeal. 


2. Conceding

(a)     A player may offer a concession, but this becomes null and void if the opponent chooses to play on. 


(b)     A player shall not concede a frame in any game, or match unless any player needs penalty points. Any breach of this Rule shall be regarded as Unsporting Conduct by the player concerned. If the referee has already Warned the player under Rule 1(a) above, the next frame shall be awarded to their opponent. 


(c)     When aggregate scores determine the winner of a game or match and a frame is conceded, the opponent shall receive the equivalent of the value of any balls remaining on the table, where Reds shall count as eight points each and any colour incorrectly off the table shall be counted as if spotted. 


3. Time Wasting

(a)     In the event of a player taking an abnormal amount of time over a stroke, or the selection of a stroke, the referee shall Warn the player that in the event of any further Time Wasting during the game the frame will be awarded to their opponent. 


(b)     If the referee has Warned the player for Time Wasting under (a) above, in the event of any further Time Wasting by that player, the referee shall award the frame to their opponent. 


(c)     If a referee has awarded a frame to a player's opponent for Time Wasting, in the event of any further Time Wasting by the player concerned, the referee shall, each time thereafter award a frame to the player’s opponent. 


4. Penalty

(a)     If a frame is forfeited under this Section, the offender shall:

            (i) lose the relevant frame; and 


            (ii) when aggregate scores determine the winner of a game or match, forfeit all points scored and the                                    opponent shall receive the equivalent of the value of any balls remaining on the table, where Reds shall                          count as eight points each and any colour incorrectly off  the table shall be counted as if spotted. 


(b)     If a game is forfeited under this Section, the offender shall:

            (i)   lose the relevant frame; and 


            (ii) additionally, lose the required number of un-played frames to 
complete the game where frames are                                 relevant; or 


            (iii) additionally, lose the remaining frames, each valued at 147 points, where aggregate points determine the                      winner of the 
game. 


5. Non-striker

The non-striker shall, when the striker is playing, avoid standing or moving in the line of sight of the striker. They shall sit or stand at a reasonable distance from the table and avoid making any movement or action that may interrupt the concentration of the striker.

6. Scoring Responsibility

As well as the referee, it is the players’ responsibility to make sure that the correct score is being applied, either on the scoreboard or by the referee announcing the scores. If any player notices that the score is wrong, they shall inform the referee at the earliest opportunity.

7. Absence

In the case of their absence from the table, the non-striker may appoint a deputy to watch in their interest and claim an infringement if necessary. Such appointment must be made known to the referee prior to departure.

SECTION 5 THE OFFICIALS

1. The Referee

(a)       The referee shall:


       (i)   make decisions in the interests of fair play for any situation not covered adequately by these Rules;


       (ii) be responsible for proper conduct during a match under these  Rules;


       (iii) intervene if they see any infringement of these Rules;


       (iv) tell a player the colour of a ball, or its position, if requested; and

        (v) clean any ball upon reasonable request by the striker. 


(b)       The referee shall not:


       (i) answer any question not authorised in these Rules; nor

       (ii) give any indication that a player is about to make an 
infringement; nor


       (iii) give any advice or opinion on situations that   could affect play; 
nor


       (iv) answer any question regarding the difference in scores. 


(c)        If the referee has failed to notice any incident, they may at their discretion take the evidence of the marker or other officials or spectators best placed for the observation or, if available they may   view a camera/video recording of the incident to assist their decision. 


2. The Marker 


The marker shall keep the score on the scoreboard and assist the referee in carrying out their duties. The marker shall also act as a stroke recorder if necessary. 


3.The Stroke Recorder 


The stroke recorder shall maintain a record of each stroke or infringement and how many points are scored by each player or side as required. They shall also make note of break totals and Warnings where issued. 


4. Assistance by Officials

(a)       At the striker’s request, the referee or marker shall move and hold in position any lighting apparatus that interferes with the action of the striker in making a stroke. 


(b)       It is permissible for the referee or marker to give necessary assistance to players with disabilities according to their circumstances. 


 BILLIARDS RULES 

SECTION 1. - EQUIPMENT

Measurements displayed in brackets state the Metric equivalent to the nearest millimeter

1. The Standard Table

a) The Playing Area

The playing area is within the cushion faces and shall measure 11 ft. 8½ in x 5ft 10 in (3569mm x 1778mm) with a tolerance on both dimensions of +/- ½ in (+/- 13mm)

b) Height.


The height of the table from the floor to the top of the cushion rail shall be from 2ft 10 in (864 mm) with a tolerance of +/-  ½ in (13 mm)

c) Bottom Cushion and Top Cushion

The two shorter sides of the table are defined as the Bottom (also known as Baulk) and Top Cushions of the table. Where a cloth with a nap is fitted to the table, the smooth grain of the nap runs from the Bottom Cushion to the Top Cushion.

d) Baulk-line and Baulk

A straight line drawn 29 in (737mm) from the face of the Bottom Cushion and parallel to it, running from side cushion to side cushion is called the Baulk-line. That line and the intervening space is termed Baulk.

e) The "D"


The "D" is a semi-circle marked in Baulk with the centre of its straight section in the middle of the Baulk-line and with a radius of 11½ in (292mm).

f) Spots

 Four spots are marked on the centre longitudinal line of the table

  1. the Spot, 12¾ in (324mm) from a point perpendicularly below the face of the Top Cushion.        ii) the Centre Spot, located midway between the points perpendicularly below the faces of the Top and Bottom Cushions.

iii) the Pyramid Spot, located midway between the Centre Spot and the point perpendicularly below the face of the Top Cushion.

iv) the Middle of the Baulk-line.

g) Pocket Openings

There shall be a pocket at each of the four corners of the table and one each at the middle of the longer sides.

2. Balls

The balls shall be of an approved composition and shall each have a diameter of 52.5mm with a tolerance of +/- 0.05mm and:

a) a set of balls comprises of a Red, a White and a Yellow (which may have spots). Alternatively, a Red, a White and a Spot White (with the latter having two or more spots for identification) may be used.

b) The balls shall be of an approved composition and shall each have a diameter of 52.5 mm with a tolerance of +/- 0.05 mm:

c) they shall be of equal weight where possible but the tolerance between the heaviest ball and the lightest ball in a set should be no more than 0.5 g; and

d) a set of balls may be changed by agreement between the players or on a decision by the referee.

3. Cue

A cue shall be not less than 3ft (914mm) in length and shall show no change from the traditional tapered shape and form, with a tip, used to strike the cue-ball secured to the thinner end.

4. Ancillary

Various cue rests, long cues, extensions and adaptors may be used by players. These may form part of the equipment normally found at the table but also include equipment introduced by either a player or the referee. All extensions, adaptors and other devices to aid cueing and/or sighting must have received prior approval from the relevant governing body.

SECTION 2. – DEFINITIONS

Standard definitions used throughout these Rules are hereinafter italicised

 

1. Game

A game is the period of play from the start (see Section 3 Rule 2 b)), each player or side playing in turn until it is completed by:

a) concession by any player; or

b) reaching the end of a specified period of time; or

c) either side reaching the number of points specified; or

d) being awarded by the referee under Section 4 Rules 1 (b), 1 (c) 1 (d) or 3 (b).

2. Match

A match is an agreed or stipulated number of games.

3. Balls

a) The cue ball (Yellow, White or Spot White), is the ball of the striker.

b) The non-striker’s ball and the red are object balls.

4. Cushion Faces

The cushion rubbers have a flat face which runs along all sides of the playing area. The curved face of the cushion is considered to be the area inside the points where the cushion face is actually cut into a curve to form the pocket opening.

5. Stringing

Stringing or to String is when both players simultaneously strike a cue-ball each from opposite halves of the Baulk-line towards the Top Cushion to rebound back towards Baulk. The player whose ball finishes nearest to the Bottom Cushion, in the opinion of the referee, wins the String. The cue-ball may only hit the flat face of the Top or Bottom Cushions; contact with any other cushion or the cue-ball crossing to the other player’s half of the table will result in a forfeit of the String.

6. Striker and Turn

The person about to play or in play is the striker. It is their turn until:

  1. a stroke is played and no points are scored; or

b) a foul is committed, all balls have come to rest and the referee is satisfied that the striker has left the table.

 

7. Stroke

a) A stroke is made when the striker strikes the cue-ball with the tip of the cue in the direction of cue alignment, except when addressing the cue-ball (known as feathering).

b) The cue-ball must be struck only once and not pushed forward. The tip of the cue may momentarily remain in contact with the cue-ball after it commences motion

c) A stroke is legal when no foul is made.

d) A stroke is not completed until:  

       (i) all balls have come to rest.                                                                                                                                                              (ii) spotting of any balls required is completed;                                                                                                                               (iii) any ancillary equipment being used by the striker has been removed.

e) A stroke may be made directly or indirectly, thus:

      (i) a stroke is direct when the cue-ball strikes an object ball without first hitting a cushion.                                                   (ii) a stroke is indirect when the cue-ball hits one or more cushions before hitting either object ball.

8. Pot and Pocketing

A pot is when an object ball, after contact with another ball and without any infringement of these Rules, enters a pocket. Causing a ball to be potted is known as potting. Causing a ball to enter a pocket in any non-scoring stroke is referred to as pocketing.     

                                               

9. In-Off

An in-off is when the cue ball, after contacting an object ball and without any infringement of these Rules, enters a pocket. If both object balls are contacted by the cue-ball, it is deemed to have gone in-off the first object ball contacted.

10. Hazard

A hazard is any scoring stroke that does not include a cannon, being any of:

  1. a pot, also known as a winning hazard;

b) an in-off, also known as a losing hazard;

c) two pots;

d) a pot and an in-off, or

e) two pots and an in-off.

11. Cannon

A cannon is when, without infringement of these Rules, the cue-ball makes contact with both object balls during a stroke. Only one cannon can be scored in as stroke.

12. Break

A break is a number of successive scoring strokes made in any one turn by the striker.

13. In-hand

a) A player’s ball is in-hand

i) before the start of each game,                                                                                                                                                                    ii) when it has entered a pocket,                                                                                                                                                         iii) when it has been forced off the table; or                                                                                                                                     iv) after balls are spotted under Section 3 Rule 14 a)

 b) It remains in-hand until

         i) it is played legally from in-hand; or                                                                                                                                                 ii) a foul is committed while it is on the table, or                                                                                                                               iii) it is spotted under Section 3 Rules 11 c) or 16 c) ii).

c) The striker is said to be in-hand when the cue-ball is in-hand as above.

14. Ball in Play

  1. The player’s ball is in play when it is not in-hand

b) The red is in play when spotted and remains so until it enters a pocket or is forced off the table.

15. Ball in Baulk

The Baulk-line and the intervening space is termed Baulk. A ball is in Baulk when it rests centrally on the Baulk-line or between that line and the Bottom Cushion.

16. Forced Off the Table

A ball is forced off the table if it comes to rest other than on playing area or in a pocket, or if it is picked up by the striker while it is in play.

17. Miss

A miss is when, playing from in-hand, the cue-ball fails to contact an object ball, when there are no object balls out of Baulk.

 

 

18. Running a coup 



Running a coup is when the striker, while in-hand, plays the cue-ball directly into a pocket, or directly off the curved face, into a pocket, when no balls are out of Baulk. It is not deemed running a coup if the ball first makes contact with the flat face and then (indirectly) enters a pocket.

19. Foul 



A foul is any infringement of these Rules.

20. Spot Occupied 


A spot is said to be occupied if a ball cannot be placed on it without the ball touching another ball.

21. Push Stroke 



A push stroke is made when the tip of the cue remains in contact with the cue-ball 



a) after the cue-ball has commenced its forward motion, other than momentarily at the point of initial contact; or

b) as the cue-ball contacts an object ball except, where the cue-ball and an object ball are almost touching, it shall not be deemed a push stroke if the cue-ball hits a very fine edge of the object ball.

22. Jump shot

A jump shot is made when the cue-ball passes over any part of an object ball, whether touching it in the process or not, except:

a) when the cue-ball first strikes one object ball and then jumps over another ball.

b) when the cue-ball jumps and hits an object ball, and at the moment of landing on the playing area, the cue-ball is not on the far side of the current position of that object ball. or

c) When, after hitting an object ball legally, the cue-ball jumps over that ball after hitting a cushion or the other ball.

SECTION 3. – THE GAME

1. Description

English Billiards is played by two persons or sides and the game can be summarised as follows:

a) Three balls are used: a plain White by one side, a Yellow or a Spot White by the other side, and a Red.

b) Scoring strokes in a player’s turn are made by pots, in-offs and cannons singly or in combination.

c) Points awarded for scoring strokes are added to the score of the striker.

d) Penalty points from fouls and misses are added to the opponent’s score.

e) A tactic employed at any time during a game is to leave both object balls in Baulk when the next player is in-hand such that any attempt at contacting the balls must be by means of an indirect stroke.

f) The winner of the game is the player or side

       i) who has scored the most points in the agreed or stipulated time. or                                                                                      ii) who first reaches the agreed or stipulated number of points; or                                                                                             iii) to whom the game is awarded under Section 4 Rule 1(b), 1 (c), 1 (d), or 3 (b); or                                                                 iv) to whom the game is conceded.

g) The winner of a match is the player or side winning most games or, where aggregate points are relevant, with the greatest total.

2. Start of Game

The choice of white ball and which side is to play first shall be decided by stringing or in any mutually agreed manner, the winner having both options unless all players mutually agree on these options.

a) The order of play thus determined must remain unaltered through the game.

b) The red is placed on the Spot and the first player plays from in-hand, the game commencing when the cue-ball has been placed on the table and contacted with the tip of the cue, either

        i) as a stroke is made, or                                                                                                                                                                       ii) while preparing to play a stroke, except as in Section 3 Rule 6 (b)

c) It is the striker’s responsibility to play with the correct cue-ball even if the wrong ball is passed to them by the referee.

d) In matches which consist of a multiple number of games, if a game is started by the wrong player or side:

         (i) it shall be restarted correctly, without penalty, if only one stroke has been played and no foul has been                           committed since; or

        (ii) It shall continue in the normal way if another stroke is made, or if a foul is committed during the first stroke                   or after the completion of the first stroke, with the correct order of starting being resumed in the following                     game such that one player or side will have started in three consecutive games.

3. Mode of Play

(a)    The players play alternately, or in turn, unless a score is made, in which case the striker continues the break playing from the position left or, after an in-off or if touching another ball as provided for in Section 3 Rule 14 (a), from in-hand.

(b)    When the striker fails to score, their turn ends and the next player plays from the position then left, this being from in-hand if their cue-ball is off the table or touching another ball as provided for in Section 3 Rule 14 (a).

(c)     After a foul the next player has the additional option of playing from in-hand with both object balls spotted as provided for in Section 3 Rule 16 c) ii).

(d)    Following the final stroke of the opponent’s turn, or following a foul, if an incoming player strikes the cue-ball or commits a foul before the balls have come to rest, or before the referee has completed the spotting of any ball, they shall be penalised as if they were the striker and their turn will end.

4. Scoring

Points are scored as follows:


a) A cannon, pot white, pot yellow, in-off white and in-off yellow shall each score two.

  1.  A pot red and in-off red shall each score three.

c) If more than one hazard or combination of hazards and a cannon are made in the same stroke, all are scored.

d) When an in-off is combined with a cannon, the in-off shall score (additionally to the cannon)

        i) three points if the red was struck first by the cue-ball.                                                                                                               ii) two points if the object ball (white, spot white or yellow) was struck first, or                                                                        iii) two points if both object balls were struck simultaneously.

5. End of Session and Game

a)        At the end of the period of time set for any session, the referee shall call TIME. Any stroke that has been made shall be allowed to finish and any points scored shall be added to the appropriate side. If other sessions are to follow, the position of all balls shall

and noted by the referee so that the next session may commence from the point of interruption.

b)      The end of the final session as above is the end of a game in a time format.

c)      In a game or match played to a time limit, it is possible that the scores could be level at the end of the period of time allowed and the rules setting the period of time should include provision for any necessary tie-break.

d)      When playing to an agreed or stipulated number of points, the end of the game is reached when a player first reaches or passes the required number. Only the points required are counted, though the player shall be credited with a break that includes all points scored.

6. Playing from In-hand

To play from in-hand the cue-ball must be struck from a position on or within the lines of the “D”, and:


a)      the referee will state, if asked, whether the cue-ball is properly placed (that is, not outside the lines of the “D”);

b)      if the tip of the cue should touch the cue-ball while positioning it, and the referee is satisfied that the striker was not preparing or attempting to play a stroke, then the cue-ball is not in play;

c)      the cue-ball must be played out of Baulk. If it contacts an object ball that is out of Baulk, the cue-ball is held to have been played out of Baulk even though it may not physically cross the Baulk-line.

d)      the cue-ball must contact a cushion or ball out of Baulk before re-entering and coming to rest in Baulk, or before contacting a ball in Baulk.

e)      the cue-ball may be played against a cushion in Baulk before hitting a ball out of Baulk.

f)       if an object ball is in Baulk, no part of its surface may be played on directly from in-hand, even if that part of its surface is physically out of Baulk.

7. Ball on Baulk-line

The referee shall state, if asked, whether a ball on or near the Baulk-line is in Baulk or out.

8. Baulk-line Crossing

In any event where the Baulk-line Crossing Rule is applied, the cue-ball must cross the Baulk-line as part of a legal stroke between 80 - 100 points in every accumulation of 100 points within a break.

(a)        Crossing the Baulk-line must be made into Baulk, i.e. against the smooth grain of the nap of the cloth. 


(b)       The cue-ball is in Baulk when it crosses the Baulk-line (resting centrally on the Baulk-line means that it has not crossed). The cue- ball does not have to return out of the Baulk. 


(c)       The referee must state BAULK-LINE WARNING AT 80 after completion of the stroke that took the striker’s break score to, or past, 80 points. 


(d)       The Baulk-line crossing must be made when the break score is within the 20 points tolerance, that is 80 to 100 points, and made during, or prior to, the stroke that takes the break score to, or past, 100 points. 


(e)       If the referee fails to state the Baulk-line Warning at the correct point of the break score, the striker must cross the Baulk-line within 20 points of the break score at which the Warning is announced. The break score at which the next Warning is due in the break is unaffected. 


(f)        When the referee is satisfied that the cue-ball has crossed the Baulk-line legally, they shall call the break score and then state BAULK-LINE CROSSED. 


(g)       If the striker is playing from in-hand or from within Baulk, it is possible to make a Baulk-line crossing providing the referee is satisfied that the stroke causes the cue-ball, either fully or the greater part of it, to leave Baulk before returning to cross the Baulk-line. 


(h)       Unless the striker’s turn ends with a non-scoring stroke, the striker’s failure to cross the Baulk-line during the stipulated period is a foul and the incoming player will have the usual options following a foul. 


9. Spotting Object Balls

a) If the red is pocketed or forced off the table, it is placed on the Spot, or

         i) if the Spot is occupied, it shall be placed on the Pyramid Spot.                                                                                                ii) if both the Spot and Pyramid Spot are occupied, it shall be placed on the Centre Spot.

b)  If the red is potted twice, or more by mistake, in consecutive strokes, in one break, either from the Spot or from the Pyramid Spot, not in conjunction with another score, it shall be placed on the Centre Spot except:

        i) if the Centre Spot is occupied, it shall be placed on the Pyramid Spot.                                                                                   ii) if both the Centre Spot and the Pyramid Spot are occupied, it shall be placed on the Spot but shall not then be               considered as part of a sequence of pots from the Spot for the purpose of this Rule.

c) For continued pots of the red, not in conjunction with another score, it shall be placed on the Spot twice, then the Centre Spot once, in sequence while those spots are not occupied.

d) The referee shall inform the striker upon request how many consecutive pots have been made off the same spot.

e) A ball, to be correctly spotted, must be placed on the spot designated in these Rules.

f) If a ball, initially correctly spotted, should be contacted, then that ball is no longer considered to be spotted, even though it may not have moved.

g) A player shall not be held responsible for any mistake by the referee in failing to spot any ball correctly.

10. Limitation of Cannons

Consecutive cannons, not in conjunction with a hazard, are limited to seventy-five.

a) After seventy such cannons, the referee shall state SEVENTY CANNONS. If the referee should fail to announce when seventy cannons have been made, the striker shall be entitled to make five more such cannons after the referee does announce SEVENTY CANNONS.

b) The referee shall inform the striker upon request how many consecutive strokes of cannons have been made.

11. Limitation of Hazards

Consecutive hazards, not in conjunction with a cannon, are limited to fifteen strokes.


a) After ten such strokes of hazards, the referee shall state TEN HAZARDS. If the referee should fail to announce when ten hazards have been made, the striker shall be entitled to make five more such hazards after the referee does announce TEN HAZARDS.

b) The referee shall inform the striker upon request how many consecutive strokes of hazards have been made.

c) If the non-striker’s ball is off the table as a result of the final stroke of the non-striker’s last turn, it shall after the fifteenth hazard, be placed on the Middle of the Baulk-line or, if that is occupied, on the right-hand corner of the “D”, viewed from the Baulk end of the table.

12.Ball on Edge of Pocket

When a ball falls into a pocket without being hit by another ball, and:

  1. Being no part of any stroke in progress, it shall be replaced and all points scored shall count.

b)   If it would have been hit by any ball involved in a stroke:   

        i) with no infringement of these Rules (including cases where an infringement would have occurred but for the                 ball falling into a pocket) all balls will be replaced and the same stroke played again, or a different stroke may                 be played, by the same striker at their discretion;                                          

       ii)  if a foul is committed all balls will be replaced and the next player has the usual options after a foul.

c)   If it balances momentarily on the edge of a pocket and then falls in, it shall count as in the pocket and shall not be replaced.

13. Ball Moved by Other than Striker

If a ball, stationary or moving, is disturbed by other than by the striker, it shall be repositioned by the referee to the place they deemed the ball was, or would have come to rest, without penalising the striker.

a) This Rule shall include cases where another occurrence or person, other than the striker’s partner, causes the striker to move a ball, but will not apply in cases where a ball moves due to any defect in the table surface, except in the case where a spotted ball moves before the next stroke has been made.

b) No player shall be penalised for any disturbance of balls by the referee.

14. Touching Ball

(a)    When the striker’s ball remains touching another ball, the referee shall state TOUCHING BALL and, after briefly allowing both players or sides to inspect, red shall be placed on the Spot, the non-striker’s ball if on the table, shall be placed on the Centre Spot, and the striker shall play from in-hand.

(b)    If a stationary object ball, not touching the cue-ball when examined by the referee, is later seen to be in contact with the cue-ball before a stroke has been made, the balls shall be re-positioned by the referee to their satisfaction.

(c)     The striker is entitled to be told upon request whether the object balls are touching.

15. Fouls

The following acts are fouls:

a)      striking a ball other than the cue-ball,

b)      striking the cue-ball more than once during a stroke,

c)      striking when any ball is not at rest,

d)      striking when both feet are off the floor

e)      playing out of turn;

f)       playing improperly from in-hand, including at the opening stroke;

g)      Running a Coup;

h)      playing a jump shot;

i)       making a push stroke;

j)       causing a ball to be forced off the table;

k)      making more than fifteen consecutive hazards;

l)      making more than seventy-five consecutive cannons;

m)     contacting, with any part of the player’s person, attire or equipment, a ball in play, or any device used to mark a ball in play;

n)      striking before the referee has completed the spotting of a ball;

o)      causing the cue-ball to miss all object balls, other than as provided for in Section 3 Rule 16;

p)     conferring with a partner contrary to Section 3 Rule 17 (b);

q)      playing with a non-standard cue;

r)       using a ball off the table for any purpose;

s)      using any object to measure gaps or distance;

t)       failure to cross the Baulk-line during the stipulated period;

16. Action after a Foul

If a foul is committed the referee shall immediately call FOUL.


a)      If the striker has not made a stroke, their right to play a stroke ends immediately. If they should, in the opinion of the referee, intentionally play a stroke after being called for a foul, they shall be deemed to have committed a further foul for playing out of turn and shall be further penalised.

b)      All points scored in a break before a foul is awarded shall count but the striker shall not score any points in a stroke called foul.

c)       All fouls will incur a penalty of two points but no more than two points shall be incurred in any one stroke. Additionally, the next player shall have the option of playing:

        i)  from where the balls have come to rest, the red if off the table being first correctly spotted; or

       ii)   from in-hand with the Red placed on the Spot and the opponent’s cue-ball placed on the Centre Spot.                             After a request to have the balls so spotted has been made, it cannot be withdrawn.

d) If the foul is neither awarded by the referee, nor successfully claimed by the non-striker before the next stroke is made, it is condoned.

17. Action after a Miss

If a miss is made, without running a coup, referee shall call MISS. A penalty of two points is incurred, which is added to the opponents score. Any other miss is a foul.

18. Four Handed Billiards

a)      The side to make the first stroke is decided, as in Section 3 Rule 2. The Order of play is then determined by the next player after which the order must remain unchanged throughout the game.

b)     Partners may confer during a game but not while one is the striker and has approached the table until the break has ended with a non-scoring stroke or a foul. This principle shall also apply in games between individual players that form part of a team match.

19. Use of Ancillary Equipment

It is the responsibility of the striker to both place and remove any equipment they may use at the table.


a)      The striker is responsible for all items including, but not limited to, rests and extensions that they bring to the table, whether owned by them or borrowed (except from the referee), and they will be penalised for any fouls made when using this equipment.

b)     Equipment normally found at the table which has been provided by another party including the referee is not the responsibility of the striker. It is not a foul if this equipment should prove to be faulty and thereby cause the striker to contact a ball or balls. The referee will, if necessary, re-position any balls in accordance with Section 3 Rule 13 and the striker, if in a break, will be allowed to continue without penalty.

20. Interpretation

a)      Circumstances may necessitate adjustment in how Rules are applied for persons with disabilities. In particular Section 3 Rule 15(d) cannot be applied to players in wheelchairs.

b)      When there is no referee, the opposing player or side will be regarded as such for the purpose of these Rules

SECTION 4. – THE PLAYERS

1. Unsporting Conduct

(a)       In the event of:

                (i)  a player using offensive language, or making offensive 
gestures; or 


               (ii)  any conduct by a player which in the opinion of the referee is wilfully or persistently Unsporting; or 


               (iii)  any other conduct by a player which otherwise amounts to 
Unsporting Conduct; or


               (iv) any player refusing to continue the current game; the referee 
shall Warn the player that in the event of                           any further Unsporting 
Conduct the game will be awarded to their opponent. 


(b)        If the referee has Warned the player under (a) above, in the event of any further Unsporting Conduct, the referee shall award the game, 
as described in Section 2 Rule 1(b) or 1(c) to their opponent. 


(c)       In the event that the conduct which in the opinion of the referee is sufficiently serious, they shall award the game, as described in Section 2 Rule 1(b) or 1(c), to their opponent even if previous 
Warnings for Unsporting Conduct were not issued. 


(d)       Any decision by the referee to award a game to a player’s opponent 
shall be final and shall not be subject to any appeal. 


2. Conceding

A player may offer a concession, but this becomes null and void if the opponent chooses to play on.

3. Time Wasting

If the referee considers a player is running down the clock, they may also consider it as Time Wasting and initiate the following procedure:

(a)       In the event of a player taking an abnormal amount of time over a stroke, or the selection of a stroke, or in the event that the non- striker’s actions are deemed Time Wasting, the referee shall pause the clock, where relevant, and then Warn the offender that in the event of any further Time Wasting, the game will be awarded to their opponent. If relevant, the clock shall be re-started after the next stroke is played or a foul is awarded. 


(b)       If there is a game clock relevant to a multi table set-up and not for an individual table, the referee may decide to add to the end of the match any wasted time where the clock couldn’t be paused. Once they have dealt with Time Wasting as in paragraph (a) above, they will announce the amount of time to be added, and if requested later in the game they will remind the players of this amount of time.

(c)       If the referee has Warned the player for Time Wasting under paragraph (a) above, in the event of any further Time Wasting by that player, the referee shall award the game, as described in Section 2 Rule 1(b) or 1(c), to their opponent.

4. Non-Striker

The non-striker shall, when the striker is playing, avoid standing or moving in the line of sight of the striker. They shall sit or stand at a reasonable distance from the table and avoid making any movement or action that may interrupt the concentration of the striker.

5. Scoring Responsibility

As well as the referee, it is the players’ responsibility to make sure that the correct score is being applied, either on the scoreboard or by the referee announcing the scores. If any player notices that the score is wrong, they shall inform the referee at the earliest opportunity.

6. Absence

In the case of their absence from the table, the non-striker may appoint a deputy to watch in their interest and claim an infringement if necessary. Such appointment must be made known to the referee prior to departure

SECTION 5. – THE OFFICIALS

1. The Referee

(a) The referee shall:

(i)  make decisions in the interests of fair play for any situation not 
covered adequately by these Rules; 


(ii)  make decisions regarding pausing or stopping the clock where relevant, and inform a player of the time remaining upon reasonable request; 


(iii)  be responsible for proper conduct during a match under these Rules; 


(iv)  intervene if they see any infringement of these Rules; 


(v)  tell a player the position of a ball if requested; and 


(vi)  clean any ball upon reasonable request by the striker. 


 (b)  The Referee shall not:

(i)  answer any question not authorised in these Rules; nor 


(ii)  give any indication that a player is about to make an 
infringement; nor 


(iii)  give any advice or opinion on situations that could affect play; 
nor 


(iv)  answer any question regarding the difference in scores. 


(c)       If the referee has failed to notice any incident, they may at their discretion take the evidence of the marker or other officials or spectators best placed for the observation or, if available they may view a camera/video recording of the incident to assist their decision. 


  1. The Marker 


The marker shall keep the score on the scoreboard and assist the referee in carrying out their duties. The marker shall also act as a stroke recorder if necessary. 


  1. The Stroke Recorder 


The stroke recorder shall maintain a record of each stroke or infringement and how many points are scored by each player or side as required. They shall also make note of break totals and Warnings where issued. 


  1. The Timekeeper 


Where times are relevant to a game or match the timekeeper will be responsible for;

(i)  starting and stopping the match clock; and 


(ii)  pausing the match clock at the request of the referee; and 


(iii) indicating that the specified time has been reached.
If not adopted by the Referee, the role of timekeeper is generally assumed by the marker or the stroke recorder.

5. Assistance by Officials

(a)       At the striker’s request, the referee or marker shall move and hold in position any lighting apparatus that interferes with the action of the striker in making a stroke. 


(b)       It is permissible for the referee or marker to give necessary assistance to players with disabilities according to their circumstances. 


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